Definition of Hyperglycemia…
Hyperglycemia comes from the word “hyper” means excessively or above normal and “glycemia” means the presence of glucose in the blood. It literally means you have above normal sugar in the blood.
If, we are done eating food that usually contain carbohydrates our body breaks it down into a sugar called glucose. Then our body produces a hormone called insulin.
Insulin help our body either to use or to store blood sugar.When you have diabetes in your body then it does not produce enough insulin or cannot use insulin properly.
It may lead to have too much sugar in the blood that is called hyperglycemia. Signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia will occur.
The technical term for hyperglycemia is high blood sugar same as glucose above 200mg/dl or 11.1mmol/L.If unable to control blood sugar on your own and do not take insulin or diabetic medications then you will have higher blood sugar in an extended duration and when that it remains high, it will lead to one of the consequences of high blood sugar.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis is a serious condition that our body begins to burn fat as source of energy. Fat break down and produce ketones that makes our blood acidic. It can lead to diabetic coma or death.
Cause of hyperglycemia are as follows:
1.) Not taking enough insulin or diabetes medicine – talk with your diabetes provider about how to adjust your medication dose
2.) Not injecting insulin properly or using expired insulin – keep unopened insulin in the fridge. Once it is taken out and used, it is only good for 28 days, and then MUST be thrown out
3.) Taking medicines that increase blood sugar such as steroids
4.) Eating too much food or carbohydrates – it is better to use a list of carbohydrates to make sure you are staying in balance with your meal plan
5.) Lack of exercise or physical activity – exercise makes your body use sugar better, so decreasing activity can result in higher blood sugars
6.) Sickness, injury or surgery – any kind of inflammation in your body can cause higher blood sugars
7.) Emotional Stress such as family or work problems – adrenaline can cause extra sugar to be released into the blood. Try to relax and find some stress relief
8.) Hormone level changes such as menstrual period
9.) If the patient experienced the dawn phenomenon ( surge of hormones that the body produces daily around 4:00am to 5:00am)
How to Prevent…
Prevention of hyperglycemia are as follow:
1.) Regular checking of blood sugar for early recognition of high blood sugar
2.) Follow normal eating plan
3.) Take diabetes medications as prescribed
4.) Control stress
5.) Regular exercises
Sign and Symptoms…
You need to know why this happen. It is important to have knowledge on the symptoms of hyperglycemia in order to take preventive actions.
It isn’t just the diabetics who should be worried about the spike in blood sugar level but every other person should be watchful about the food that they eat, as this is one of the major reason that give rise to blood sugar.
Here are the list:
1.) Feels very thirsty (Polydipsia) – to define polydipsia, the word “poly” means many or much and the word “dipsia” means (condition of) thirst. When the sugar level in blood is high, the kidneys work more to filter the extrahyperglycemia symptoms sugar. The sugar then gets removed in the form of urine, along with other fluids from the body. This makes one feel dehydrated and thirsty.
2.) Having to urine a lot (Polyurea) – to define polyurea, the word “poly” means many or much and the word “urea” means urine. When the excess sugar level gets removed from the body in the form of urine, this make one feel dehydrated and thirsty.
3.) Frequent hunger (Polyphagia) – to define polyphagia, the word “poly” means many or much and the word “phagia” means eating in a specified manner. As the urination level increases, you tend to lose calories. Also, due to high level of sugar, it prevents the sugar from the food to reach the cells, this can cause frequent hunger.
4.) Weight Loss – when the frequency of urination level increases, you tend to lose calories at the same time. Thus, it leads to loss in weight.
5.) Numbness – when there is excess sugar level in the blood, it damages the nerves. This causes numbness and you tend to lose the sensations in the hand and feet.
6.) Feeling tired – when the blood sugar level is high, the glucose in the body is not utilized properly; the cell fail to get the needed energy this cause frequent fatigue.
7.) Blurry vision – frequent urination which is caused by high blood sugar in the body, will also lead to the dryness of the eyes and this causes blurring of the vision.
8.) Itching and Skin Infection – dry and itchy skin is common when the blood sugar level is high in the body. Due to frequent urination, it causes dehydration and the skin tissues also become dry causing itching and skin infection
9.) Problems with concentration – it prevents the glucose to enter the cells into the brain, so the brain has difficulty in obtaining energy. This adversely affect the speed of thinking and making decisions
10.) Slow healing of wounds and cuts – this is due to vascular damage that is caused by high blood sugar levels, deteriorates the circulation of the blood especially in the legs
11.) Decrease libido – high blood sugar negatively effect the nerve flow of the blood and proper hormonal balance which results to decrease libido and potency.
12.) Irritability – according to research people with high blood sugar are anxious, irritable and prone to depression. The brain relies on the supplies equal amount of glucose and sudden jumps in the level of its negative impact in its work.
Effects of Hyperglycemia…
Untreated hyperglycemia may require immediate hyperglycemia emergency treatment. Diabetic Ketoacidosis may occur due to build up of ketones (toxic acid) in our blood and urine. As a result it may show a person to have a fruity-smelling breath, nausea and vomiting, shortness of breath, dry mouth, abdominal pain, weakness, confusion and coma.
1.) Take diabetes medication as directed by your health care provider – do not take extra medication as directed by health care provider
2.) Drink plenty of water
3.) Check blood sugar every 4 hours
4.) Follow normal eating plan
5.) Increase physical activity or exercise if you can – do not exercise if your blood sugar is above 240mg/dl
6.) Exercise may cause increasing blood sugars
Making Sense of Blood Glucose Numbers…
Looking at blood glucose patterns helps you identify times of the day when your blood glucose is high or low. This information helps you and your healthcare team make more informed decisions about changes in your diabetic care.
Knowing how different foods and meal sizes impact your blood glucose allows you to eat a variety of foods and still maintain good control over your diabetes. It gives you freedom and flexibility in your meal plan.
Testing blood glucose before and after exercise shows you impact of physical activity on your blood glucose control. This type of positive feedback can help you maintain a program of regular exercise. And you will feel better.
Managing diabetes is a team effort. Identifying patterns with simple tools helps you and your healthcare team work together towards better diabetes control.
Sick days and times of stress can have a big impact on blood glucose levels. Regular blood glucose testing during times of illness and stress gives you a better understanding of how these health events affect your blood sugar.
Identifying and understanding blood glucose patterns allows your healthcare professional to make informed decisions about how well your medications are working and whether any changes are needed.
Seeing your blood glucose patterns helps you quickly understand if you are at goal and how changes in your diabetes treatment plan are working. It helps you take action when needed. Maintaining good diabetes control gives you more lifestyle flexibility and helps you feel better.
We can control our blood sugar…
Anyone can suffer from this. Hyperglycemia is not painful, but dangerous over months and years. With time, it might affect the blood vessels and nervous system and cause serious damages to the eyes, kidneys, heart, and feet and other related nervous system and digestive and urinary tract.
It is not easy to control blood sugar. First we should be aware and recognize symptoms in time to prevent further complications. We should have an active lifestyle and do regular exercises and activities.
Diet also contribute to a high blood sugar, we should seek proper advice for our diet from our healthcare team. Be positive and do things calmly to prevent stress.
Especially do follow the treatment regimen as prescribed. Just have discipline in making our life healthier and you will see the result very soon.