The role of blood glucose and insulin
Diabetes is a chronic and non contagious illness, indicating that the rate of glucose in the blood is above normal. The glucose (sugar) is the most important source of energy needed by the body.
In order to use this energy, there should be a sugar transfer from the blood into the cells. Insulin is necessary for the transport operation and plays a fundamental role in regulating sugar in the blood.
So, the presence of sufficient insulin is necessary. To reduce the blood glucose levels in the blood.
There are several types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes that affects children and young people is due to little or no secretion of pancreas insulin.
The body doesn’t make enough insulin. They compose the 10% who has diabetes.
The most common type of diabetes is Type2 which affects adults. In type 2 diabetes, either insufficient insulin is produced by the pancreas, and/or cells have become less sensitive to insulin.
Consequently, the transport of glucose into the cells is inadequate and as a result, blood glucose rises above the normal level. They compose the majority of 90% who has diabetes.
Early symptoms and long-term complications
The incidence of diabetes is increasing rapidly and type 2 diabetes primarily affects adults, although more and more children and youths are now affected. As for statistics according to American Diabetes Association. In 2015, 30.3 million Americans, or 9.4% of the population has diabetes. In 30.3 million adults who have diabetes, 23.1 million were diagnosed, and 7.2 million were undiagnosed.
There are 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes every year. Diabetes remains the 7th leading cause of death in the United States in 2015.
Early symptoms of Diabetes are:
1.) Hunger and fatigue
2.) Peeing more often and being thirstier
3.) Dry mouth and itchy skin
4.) Blurred vision
Other Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms:
1.) Unplanned weight loss
2.)Nausea and vomiting
Other Type 2 Diabetes Symptom:
1.) Yeast infections
2.) Slow healing of sore or cuts
3.) Pain or numbness in your feet or legs
Type 2 diabetes develops gradually and does not hurt, so it can remain undetected for a long time.On the long run, high blood sugar may cause serious damage to the eyes, the heart, the kidneys, the nerves and the blood vessels.
1.) Cardiovascular disease – Coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack and stroke and narrowing of arteries.
2.) Nerve damage (neuropathy) – tingling numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tip of the toes or fingers and gradually spread upward.
3.) Kidney damage (nephropathy) – kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease.
4.) Eye damage (retinopathy) – blindness, cataracts and glaucoma.
5.) Foot damage – cuts and blisters can develop serious infections.
6.) Skin conditions – bacterial and fungal infections.
7.) Hearing impairment
8.) Alzheimer’s Disease – also dementia
10.) Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) and Acidosis
11.) HHNS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome)
Treatment of diabetes requires a comprehensive and integrated program
By following the appropriate treatment, you can avoid the potential complications of diabetes, lead a normal life to the fullest, have a job, participate in sports activities, and have children.
Type 2 diabetes requires adapting your lifestyle with a focus on weight reduction and consistent exercise.
Taking appropriate medication to adjust insulin production and insulin sensitivity helps to maintain your blood glucose within normal ranges. Many, but not all patients type 2 diabetes require additional insulin.
It is mandatory to regularly measure your blood glucose levels.